Improve jobs that are difficult and disliked in order to increase productivity.

Improve jobs that are difficult and disliked in order to increase productivity.

Before

Before

After

After

WHY

In every enterprise there are bottleneck operations that are particularly difficult and therefore disliked by workers. Special effort is needed to improve these bottlenecks.

Until recently, it was assumed that job characteristics were predetermined by technical and economic requirements. However, it is today possible to design better jobs by using more up-to-date technologies and improved work organization.There is good scope for defeating difficult and monotonous jobs.

By improving difficult jobs, it becomes easier to assign jobs, rotate workers and make effective production plans.

RISKS / SYMPTOMS

• poor communication

• excessive fatigue

• lack of acceptance

• increased injury or illness rates

• poor worker health

HOW

1. Examine the jobs within the enterprise that are considered to be difficult.Typical examples of such jobs are:

– physically demanding tasks, such as manual handling of heavy materials;

– work exposed to excessive heat, cold, dust,noise or other hazardous agents;

– jobs that are often performed in irregular working hours such as frequent night shifts;

– repetitive work that is fragmented, boring and isolated;

– jobs requiring little skill with only limited career possibilities;

– skilled but arduous jobs that are stressful and fatigue workers.

2. Mechanize difficult tasks but avoid jobs resulting in machine-paced or monotonous tasks.

3. Improve equipment and sequence of work to make the job easier and more responsible.

4. Combine tasks (e.g. to constitute a job performing a sequence of assembly tasks) so as to have a longer cycle time.

5. Make the job less machine-paced or conveyorpaced (e.g. by having both upstream and downstream buffer stocks – unfinished workpieces– of unfinished products which allow the worker to pause or change the pace of work).

6. Add more responsible tasks such as inspection,maintenance and repair.

7. Promote multi-skilled jobs and sharing of jobs to avoid concentrating difficult jobs on a small number of workers.

SOME MORE HINTS

A very flexible way of improving job content is group work.This makes it possible to overlap skills and share difficult work.

Elimination of difficult jobs must also be planned by involving workers.Group discussion of the change process is indispensable.

Emphasize that the reduction of difficult jobs not only reduces occupational stress and ill-effects, but also facilitates better use of skills and improves career prospects.The benefits will include a more productive enterprise.

POINTS TO REMEMBER

As there are no simple solutions to the problems of difficult jobs, take advantage of suggestions from both managers and workers. Improvement is usually needed in equipment and work methods, as well as in work organization.

Provide  drinking  facilities to  ensure  good performance

WHY

Good drinking facilities and hygienic eating space can do much to prevent fatigue and maintain workers’ health.

Workers spend a substantial part of their everyday life at the enterprise. Just as they do at home, they also drink, eat and rest at the workplace. Do not forget that drinking facilities and eating areas are an essential part of your enterprise.

Especially in a hot environment, work results in considerable loss of water. Providing clean drinking water is essential for all types of work.

Private spaces may also need to be provided for breastfeedingwhere appropriate.

RISKS / SYMPTOMS

  • poor worker health
  • excessive fatigue
  • infectious disease
  • exposure to hazardous chemicals

HOW

  1. Place water containers near each group of workers, or provide water taps or drinking fountains in a place with easy access (but not near dangerous machines, not in places where water can be contaminated by dust or chemicals, and not in washrooms or toilets).
  2. Provide an eating area or room in which workers can eat food in a comfortable, relaxing atmosphere (away from their workstations).
  3. Provide eating areas away from workstations and free from disturbances such as noise, dust and chemicals.
  4. Maintain hygienic conditions in all these facilities. In an eating space, easy access to clean water for washing, drinking water or other beverages, and rubbish bins is also important.
  5. A clean, quiet and private area should be provided for women who are breastfeeding.

SOME MORE HINTS

  • It is also important to arrange for the drinking water to be cool. If a water-cooling device is not available, place the water in the coolest place.
  • It is advisable to set up the eating area or room in such a way that it can be upgraded to contain some cooking facilities or into a small buffet or canteen as resources become available (e.g. a lunch-room can include a small area where workers can prepare drinks or heat their food).
  • There are many different inexpensive ways of providing drinking water and eating areas. Solutions suited to your workplace could be sought by getting feedback from workers.
  • The space needed to set up an eating area is often less than you might expect; for 50 workers 25 square metres are sufficient if workers share the space by eating in different sittings.

POINTS TO REMEMBER

Choose types of arrangement suited to your workplace for drinking and eating. This greatly helps to reduce fatigue and maintain productivity and health. Clean and hygienic facilities are appreciated by all workers.

Reduce Overtime and Improve Work Efficiency

Overtime enables you to effectively manage higher workloads without increasing staffing levels. It also provides your employees with a source of supplemental income without having to spread their loyalty to other employers. When used properly, overtime can become a very powerful tool for meeting workload demands while minimizing costs and maximizing employee compensation and satisfaction. However, overtime that is out of control can lead to higher costs, lower quality, low employee morale and increased employee turnover.

WHAT IS OVERTIME?
As article 16 of the ILO Reduction of Hours of Work Recommendation (1962) states, overtime means all hours worked in excess of normal hours, that is, work hours exceeding 8 hours a day and 48 hours a week(40 hour in China).

WHAT IS EXCESSIVE OVERTIME?
‘Excessive overtime’ is defined as work hours that exceed legal limits, or the maximum of 60 work hours per week mandated by Brands or Clients.

Advantages & Disadvantages

The advantages of using overtime include:
Overtime can be increased or decreased to match labor resources to workload demands
Personnel working on overtime do not require additional training
Budgeted headcounts can remain the same
Overtime coverage is usually available without extended notification
Most employees want to work some overtime to supplement their income.

The disadvantages of overtime include:
High overtime levels can result in lower morale and decreased productivity
Tiredness,Work-related illness,Work-related illness,Poor quality
Prolonged overtime levels can result in worker dependency on the additional hours – reducing such time can create worker financial distress and lead to deteriorating employee relations.
The increased cost and expense.

VICIOUS CYCLE: LONG HOURS, LOW PAY

The Solution

Top management commitment

Top management commitment to reduce excessive overtime.

Appoint an coordinator to manage the project for reduce excessive overtime.

Set up a committee for reduce excessive overtime.

Seting reduce index for excessive overtime.

Identify and analysis the root causes of overtime

Use a effective tool(fish bone diagram) to Identify and analysis the root causes of overtime.

In allusion to causes of overtime,Establish an effective improvement plan & take action.

Introduction of good management methods,Such as lean production.

Root Causes of Overtime