Original Brand Name Manufacturing


Original brand name manufacturing (OBM) is a production that allows placement on domestic and foreign fashion market because it is based on the creation of trademarks and brands, not on the "no name" products. For each garment producer branding is a big challenge, especially for the small and medium ones, that lack the resources and marketing team which large companies have. On the other hand,  sensitivity and rapid changes of the market dictate the pace and "seek" to create a brand with which they can survive and thrive in a highly competitive environment [1].

With the development of markets and increased competition, the increasing number of fashion producers wants to sell their own fashion brand, and to impose themselves on the world market. World fashion scene is full of small and large trademarks and brands, those who hold positions by fostering quality and tradition and those who are yet to expand, diversify business and "charm” new consumers. There are many famous fashion brands that exist and evolve successfully on the world stage, and few people know about them or nobody does. Only 5% of consumers are faithful to a certain brand or product, and 68% change products and brands they buy very frequently.

According to Schultz and Barnes (2), brand is a relationship between consumers and brands. This relationship is not only important for the company it has a special meaning for the consumer as well. It represents what the consumer is and what he believes.

Trademark is one of the main features of the product and serves to distinguish specific products from the other ones, similar in the market. The success of a trademark, as one of the main characteristics of fashion product, depends on the feelings and opinions of specific product consumer. Due to major changes in fashion trends, fashion trademark development exists in all parts of the textile-garment chain.

Producer identifies himself with a trademark as the creator of the product, to avoid other producers to use it in the production of similar products. Thus a producer gains control of the market, has a relaxed price policy, promotional activities are easier, he builds his reputation and can legally protect himself by trademark registration. Not all products can have a trademark, nor it is desirable, and not every producer is in a position to label his product with trademark. From the standpoint of garment producer, a trademark is a promise to provide a consumer with something unique, compared to what other competitive products and trademarks offer. From the standpoint of consumer, a trademark implies keeping a promises and a reliable quality [1].

Creating a trademark is basically an effort to create a brand image, which implies that a successful combination of a physical product and additional elements (symbols, design) creates an effect which does more than all individual parts and allows consumer an easy identification and integration into his system of values and attitudes. An important part of brand image is its personality (a brand personality), i.e. a set of characteristics that are given similarly to people - pleasant, professional attitude, professionalism and so on.

USA has a very active practice in the development of private brands. Private brands are directly related to the strengthened trade that takes the lead in the market compared to producers. Both a producer and trading are interested in product development and its quality, for its better placement on the market with minimum costs: producer with making a product, and trading with keeping it in its facilities, and they both have a common interest in ensuring high quality and famous brand of the product. In this case it is about going to the common brand of product and a store, where both a producer and distributor will show up as subjects of labeling a product. They have equal rights in decision making and none of them is dependent on each other. Joint actions are undertaken to promote a brand in order to make it wellknown and achieve consumer preferences, thus promoting the image of both business partners.

In fashion industry there is great danger that the brand will become old-fashioned or to be overcome by competition. Branding as a continuous process through which various types of developed brands are applied enables increasing productivity and sales of branded fashion products.

Many brands often fail and the key reasons why brands fail, according to Matt Haiga (3), are:

• Brand amnesia - when it is forgotten what a brand is or what it used to be. For example, when old brand moves into a radically different looks/identity.

• Ego brand - brand (or the people behind it) overestimate the importance of their product and when they think that they can keep an entire market which they will never lose.

• Brand megalomania - consequence of brand ego: a company wants to take over the world, spreading onto all existing categories, but it rarely succeeds.

• Brand deception - extreme cases, where the process of branding is actually a process of concealing the truth about the product.

• Brand fatigue - a drop of creativity and brand saturation, when the companies themselves get tired of their own products.

• Brand paranoia - when there is large competition, and the company sue it out of many reasons and reinvent its brand every six months.

• Brand irrelevance - when the market evolves and the product becomes obsolete.



  1. Colovic G (2012) Strategic management in the garment industry. Woodhead Publishing India.
  2. Schultz DE, Barnes BE (1999) Strategic brand communication campaigns. McGraw-Hill.
  3. Haiga M (2005) Brand Failures: The Truth About the 100 Biggest Branding Mistakes of All Time. Kogan page.

Strategy for productivity Improvement


Strategy for productivity improvement 

Strategy for productivity improvement research the eight final recommendations for productivity improvement are summed up as follows:

Strengthen work measurement and methods improvements: Works study and industrial engineering practices need to be strengthened in apparel factories. The dependence on past time standards must give way to scientific work measurements and method improvements. Factories could gradually wove towards a fully developed industrial engineering department.

Initiate supervisor and manager training: A study of the factors associated with productivity levels clearly establishes that the factory management must adopt modern practices to achieve higher productivity. 

Set up operations training cell: It is absolutely essential to start an in house operator training program for skill as well as work culture, so that the operators are made aware of how to achieve world- class performance

Strengthen quality system: It is important that factories implement quality systems for the total organization. The aim should be to eliminate rejects and to reduce repair levels substantially. 

Strategic technology up grade: Technology level has shown significant positive correlation with productivity. Factories need to use more specialized machines in spreading, cutting, sewing, and finishing areas. It is important that the factories draw up a strategic plan for the technology up grading

Introduce productivity measurement systems: After implementing the above stated recommendations for productivity improvement, the factory should be ready to implement productivity measurement and comparison systems. This will help the factory to record, measure and communicate performance at different levels as to provide data for internal and external benchmarking.

Strengthen production planning and scheduling: As the management team is likely to equipped with better techniques, operators are well trained and productivity measurement systems are put in place, so that the factory can concentrate on strengthening production planning and scheduling. The aim should be the maximum utilization of productive resources of the factory.

Introduce incentive scheme:  The productivity gains will not be sustainable if the workers and staff do not reap the benefits of higher productivity. As the factories are likely to have already gained substantially through implementation of the recommendation on productivity measurement, it is the right time to draw up an incentive plan for the workforce that encouraged higher performance and rewards it suitably.

Critical Success Factors in the Garment Industry


Critical success factors

Critical success factors for textile and garment industry are:

  • Innovations, high value products, eco-friendly products, eco-labels;
  • Fast responsiveness to market changes, flexibility, collaborative supply chain networks, shortening lead times, speed-to-the market deliveries, information logistics;
  • Industry such as quality, flexibility, supply chain management, strategy formulation and implementation;
  • Labour-intensive vs. capital-intensive textiles;
  • Innovative products and process especially in technical textiles, fashion and creativity, product quality, R&D, education, human resources, efficient use of resources, customisation, protection of intellectual property;

Why Lean Production?

Why lean production

Production in many company demonstrate us one of way for must change organization in  garment manufacturing, because:

  • reflects and supports target attainment and quality values for short term and long-term periods,
  • development and engagement of all employees for improvement within the organization,
  • resources of an organization (finance, IT, height-tech textile material and new cutting and sewing technologies) are coordinated with the quality of garment and organization values,
  • overview of all processes in a garment company and change of the existing combination of processes, emphasis on shortening the technological time,
  • indirect connection with customer satisfaction,
  • organization will be successful only if it adequately motivates its employees,
  • quantitative evaluation as better quality, increase of productivity and

Kinds of Waste

modAMC_Waste Walk_080704_EN.key.jpg

Kind of Wastes As Explained by Dr. Colovic Post

According to David Magee and Liker different kinds of wastes in a process can be categorized in following categories. These wastes reduce production efficiency, quality of work as well as increase production lead time:

1. Overproduction – Producing items more than required at given point of time i.e. producing items without actual orders creating the excess of inventories which needs excess staffs, storage area as well as transportation, etc.

2. Waiting time – Workers waiting for raw material, the machine or information. is known as waiting and is the waste of productive time. The waiting can occur in various ways for example; due to unmatched worker/machine performance, machine breakdowns, lack of work knowledge, stock outs, etc.

3. Unnecessary Transport – Carrying of work in process (WIP) a long distance, insufficient transport, moving material from one place to another place is known as the unnecessary transport.

4. Over processing – Working on a product more than the actual requirements is termed as over processing. The over processing may be due to improper tools or improper procedures, etc. 

5. Excess Raw Material - This includes excess raw material, WIP, or finished goods causing longer lead times, obsolescence, damaged goods, transportation and storage costs, and delay. 

6. Unnecessary Movement – Any wasted motion that the workers have to perform during their work is termed as unnecessary movement. For example movement during searching for tools, shifting WIP, etc.

7. Defects – Defects in the processed parts is termed as waste. Repairing defective parts or producing defective parts or replacing the parts due to poor quality is the waste of time and effort.

8. Unused Employee Creativity – Loosing of getting better ideas, improvement, skills and learning opportunities by avoiding the presence of employee is termed as unused employee creativity.

9. Energy Consumption - Through time, it became more and more important to rationalize theconsumption of energy, giving great advantages for the consumer and the environment, being the decrease of energy costs the most attractive benefit for the consumer. There are numerous ways and techniques for a more efficient energy use, like the replacement of conventional luminaires with more efficient ones, dimensioning a capacitor for the control of the reactive energy, micro production, cogeneration, etc.

Line Balancing Process


Line balancing process

The process of balancing an assembly line involves three major steps: determine the takt time, calculate the theoretical minimum number of workstations and assign specific assembly tasks to each workstation. These steps can be performed has described below:

1. Takt Time

Takt time, also known as the production pace, is the rate at which customers require finished units.  In other words, it sets the desired time between units of production output, synchronized to costumer demand. It stems from the German word ‘takt’ that means pace, beat or musical meter and can be determined by dividing the productive time available per day and the required demand also per day.

We can determine the takt time by dividing the productive time available and the required demand per day, as previously described.

2. Minimum number of workstations

This can be calculated as the total tasks duration time divided by the takt time. The total tasks duration time is the sum of all tasks times that it takes to make the product in analysis.

3. Assign tasks to workstations

Assign tasks, one at a time, to the first workstation until the sum of the task times is equal to the workstation cycle time, or no other tasks are feasible because of time or sequence restrictions. 

Repeat the process for Workstation 2, Workstation 3, and so on until all tasks are assigned. One can also determine the maximum number of production and measure the efficiency of an assembly line as follows:

Optimization of Planning in Garment Manufacturing


Optimization of Planning in Garment Manufacturing

Gordana Colovic

The College of Textile-Design, Technology and Management, Belgrade, Serbia

Published May 15, 2015

Citation: Colovic G (2015) Optimization of Planning in Garment Manufacturing. J Textile Sci Eng 5:199. doi: 10.4172/2165-8064.1000199

Copyright: © 2015 Colovic G.


The daily production of clothing deals with many work orders, so it is necessary to complete Scheduling (shop floor control). Priorities can be determined on the basis of several rules:

- FIFO (first-in, first-out),

- FIFO (first-in, first-out),

- DDATE (earliest due date) - which product must be made first,

- CUSTPR (highest customer priority) - first the product for priority customers,

- SETUP (similar setup) - first the similar products which require a minimum setting of machines,

- SPT (shortest processing time) - priority for products that last for the shortest period,

- LPT (Longest Processing Time) - priority for products that last for the longest period.

Priority DDATE can have variations:

- SLACK (Slack minimum) - priority for jobs that have less time margin:

- CR (smallest critical ratio) - priority for jobs with smaller ratio of the remaining time to maturity and remaining processing time:

If CR > 1, then the product is made before the deadline

If CR < 1, then it’s late

If CR = 1, then it is done on time

Already deployed operations often change their order, since there are new jobs coming into production. Scheduling is performed according to the above rules, which can be modified in a way that corresponds to the number of resources or the complex global rules:

- Expanded SPT (shortest processing time) - jobs are divided into A, B and C, according to their duration. Jobs A are performed with a minimum duration, but every few hours the production is interrupted and job B is performed. Jobs C are performed every day each.

- WINQ (work-in-next-queue) - sees the duration of performing job at the next resource.

- NOPN (fewest number of remaining operation) - according to the number of resources that are yet to be used.

- S/OPN (Slack per remaining operation) - according to the time reserve for the rest of the job.

- RWK (Remaining work) - a variant of SPT, the duration of performing whole job on all resources.

Resources which are bottlenecks have a negative effect on the process efficiency, because they limit its real capacity and do not provide a high-quality, fast and flexible production. Goldratt’s limiting theory [1], defines a bottleneck in the process or in the company, because it assumes that the goal of every company is to “create money”. Limiting theory is what prevents the system or process to reach a higher level of performance, i.e. it focuses on real capacity, inventory and production costs. Goldratt’s theory coordinates production flow with demand according to the following principles:

1. It is necessary to harmonize the flow of the process, not the capacities of phases of the process,

2. Efficiency of bottleneck is not determined by its capacity, but by other constraints,

3. Utilization and use of resources are different concepts,

4. An hour wasted due to the bottleneck is an hour lost for the entire process,

5. An hour saved at bottleneck is an illusion,

6. Series of transfer do not need to be equal to the size of the production series,

7. Sizes of production series do not need to be fixed,

8. Lead time of process is the result of designing process,

9. When designing a process one should always bear in mind the constraints (bottlenecks).

Technological process of production of clothing uses the technique of parallel ways of moving cut parts of garment from one operation to another together with scheduling and deployment of technological operations on the production capacities by checking the availability of resources. Thereby the making or installation of certain parts of garment is performed by an arbitrary number of operations whose scheduling is known to everybody, as well as the duration of individual operations. The optimization of technological operations is shown in Figures 1 and 2.


Fig. 1

Fig. 2

Fig. 2

The most frequently used expressions for the network activities are CPM (Circle Plan Methods), PDM (Precedence Diagramming Method) and PERT (Program Evaluation and Review Technique), and the types of networks are:

o AOA (Activity-on-arc).

o AON (Activity-on-node).

What To Do To Improve Quality?

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This methodology is supported by the PDCA (Plan-Do-Check-Act) cycle, and provides answers to question : What to do to improve the quality?

 Continuous repetition of 7 steps within the PDCA cycle developed habits: 

- Understanding of the problem

- Training and promotion

- Teamwork

- Diagnostic process

Step 1: Selection problem

To competed a fashion product for the market need to minimize errors (for example unevenly sewn belt loops and bartack, button-holes and button not properly positioned, band after finishing does not match the original dimension).

Step 2: Collect and analyze data

This step is the basis for exploring the causes of the problem. Therefore, we use quality tools such as: Histograms, Pareto diagrams, Scatter diagrams and Line diagrams.

Step 3: Analysis of causes

All causes of problems and errors can best perceive the application of Ishikawa diagram. Its application is enabled to: 

1. Specify the basic questions and to pick the main factors of quality, and make their analysis and demonstrate a cause-effect relationships. 

2. Facilitate resolution of problems, ranging from determining the symptoms, through due until finding a final solution. 

Step 4: Planning and implementation of solutions

Deformation seams and errors is possible to predict the experimental samples (sample size 5x20 cm) of any changes in the characteristics of textile materials, threads and the types of sewing machines using a different type of weld (ISO 4915 and ISO 4916).

Planning and implementation of solutions found errors that can be based on previous analysis to predict should be planned for each material and garment.

Step 5: Assessment of the effects

Application of modern CAD systems for design and construction garment to the adoption of models and production planning with all the parameters that influence on the final shape cutting parts and garment. Virtual pattern, sewing materials and simulations in a modern, fast and economical way is a step towards improving the quality and allows the most sophisticated design.

Step 6: Standardization of solutions

Standardization size, parts of patterns and the process of inevitable for success in the market.

Step 7: Reflection

Reflection on the process is identified to answer the question whether the problems are resolved, whether the results apply, the next part of the technological process should be improved and if workers accept the method

PDCAサイクル(PDCA cycle、plan-do-check-act cycle)は、事業活動における生産管理や品質管理などの管理業務を円滑に進める手法の一つ。 Plan(計画)→ Do(実行)→ Check(評価)→ Act(改善)の 4 段階を繰り返すことによって、業務を継続的に改善する。

The McKinsey "7–S" Framework


The McKinsey "7–S" Framework

The research regarding strategy implementation which was conducted by a consulting firm McKinsey & Company, led to formulating of the so-called "7-S" model, which shows six distinct but interrelated variables that are the focus of each process of change implementation.

The McKinsey "7-S" framework gives the frame of seven separate variables that are interrelated and must be the focus of a process of change management:
- Structure;
- Strategy;
- Systems;
- Style; 
- Staff;
- Skills;
- Shared Values or Superordinate Goals (integrated goals).

Fast Fashion ファストファッション

ファストファッション(fast fashion)とは、最新の流行を採り入れながら低価格に抑えた衣料品を、短いサイクルで世界的に大量生産・販売するファッションブランドやその業態をさす。


Fast fashion can be defined as a business model that combinesfour elements:

§  fashionable clothes mostly for consumers under 40

§  affordable prices in the mid-to-low range

§  quick response

§  frequent assortment changes

Difference between fast fashion and traditional retailing is the way assortments are managed.

For many years the industry has worked around the concept of collections. Assortments are updated twice a year: at the beginning of the calendar year, the Spring-Summer collection is introduced; at the end of the summer the Fall-Winter collection is released. This industry-wide pace of change has been supported by design (cool hunting), communication (catwalks and store mock-ups where media and wholesale customers are invited), sales and marketing (catalogs, advertising) that follow similar biannual patterns.

Fast Fashion changes everything!